Survey on Rural Sanitation: UPSC Study Notes

Survey on Rural Sanitation UPSC Study Notes


Survey on Rural Sanitation

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About Twin Pit System

  • Twin-pit latrines would create valuable farm manure from human excreta.

  • Under the twin-pit system, two pits are dug with honeycombed walls and earthen floors which allow liquid to percolate into the surrounding soil.

  • When one pit is filled and closed off, waste flow is transferred to the second pit, allowing waste in the first pit to be converted into manure after a year or two.

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  • The twin pit has been promoted by the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation and the World Health Organisation.

  • It is an in-situ sanitation system. Owners will be dealing with manure, not excreta.

Other Options

  • Septic tanks are the most popular option. Others use a single leach pit or a closed pit.

  • Open pits, open drains or nallahs, or simply discarding waste directly into a nearby pond or waterbody are the other options

  • A few toilets are connected to a closed drain leading to a sewer system.

Extent of Coverage

  • National Annual Rural Sanitation Survey 2018-19 shows that just 26% of rural households use the recommended twin-pit system to dispose of excreta from their toilets.

  • The waste from the remainder of rural toilets could be harmful to health and the environment and can even push a new generation into manual scavenging.

  • The government is intensively promoting twin pits over the last two years

  • The highest ratio of twin pits is found in States which have only recently completed toilet construction.

  • Uttar Pradesh tops the list with 64% of toilets with twin pits. It had made the technology mandatory for anyone who wanted to avail the government’s Rs. 12,000 subsidy to build toilets.

  • Jharkhand is second on the list with almost 58% of its toilets connected to twin pits. It was declared open defecation free (ODF) last year.

  • For the more than 70% of toilets without twin pits, a faecal sludge management system is needed.

Source: The Hindu

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